Categories · Threats


Not only do plantations of exotic tree species replace important native conifer habitats but once established there is often a serious problem of encroachment into adjacent native forests. Ironically Pinus radiata (var.

radiata) which is Critically Endangered in its native habitat in California, as a plantation tree it has caused untold damage to conifer habitats in the Southern Hemisphere. Examples of extensive plantations can be seen in central and southern Chile where Pinus radiata and eucalyptus have replaced large tracts of important conifer habitats and continues to pose a threat through encroachment. Plantations can be the major cause of forest fires, due to the excessive amounts of water they consume. This is especially the case in Mediterranean conifer habitats where they compound the natural dryness, and intensify droughts which are becoming more frequent due to climate change. Over the past 40- 50 years the oil palm industry has escalated, particularly in Indonesia, where many important lowland conifer habitats have been replaced with plantations of the oil plam tree Elaeis guineensis

There are 63 taxa in the category – Agriculture and Forestry, Plantations:

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