Categories · Geographic Regions


The Indochina Threatened Conifer Region focuses on mainland Southeast Asia and includes Myanmar, Thailand (as far south as the Isthmus of Kra), Lao PDR, Cambodia and Việt Nam. Central physical features of this area include the Annamite Mountains that form the border between Lao PDR and Việt Nam, the Hoang Lien Mountains in northwestern Việt Nam and the extensive karst limestone areas of northern Việt Nam and the adjoining areas of China.

Climates are variable depending on altitude and distance from the coast with some areas experiencing subtropical climates with distinct wet and dry seasons while others are more seasonal. Vegetation types range from subtropical evergreen forests to subalpine bogs and meadows. The conifer flora is very diverse with at least 15 genera and 35 species present. Almost one third are endemic and at least 20 are globally threatened. Notable endemic species include Pinus krempfii and Xanthocyparis vietnamensis. Several taxa are represented by small disjunct subpopulations with the main populations found in other Regions, sometimes at considerable distances. Principal threats in this region include conversion of forests for agriculture, forestry and urbanisation, overexploitation for timber, illegal logging and wildfires.

There are 28 taxa in the category – Indochina:

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