Categories · Threats


The recent surge in the world demand for metals has led to an increase in mining activities. Open-cast mining or strip-mining and its associated activities have the most damaging effect on the environmental.

Conifer-rich forests are widely affected by this type of mining in order to extract a range of metals, including gold and nickel. Perhaps the best example of the damaging effects can clearly be seen on the Pacific island of New Caledonia. Nickel mining started here in 1874 and today it produces between 20-30% of the world۪s nickel deposits. New technologies, which allows extraction of nickel from low-grade deposits that were previously unavailable, is increasing the severity of the damage. Most of the conifers in New Caledonia occur in nickel-rich soils and the worse affected are the Araucarias which are nickel-indicator species. The associated activities of mining such as road building, air and water pollution have further negative effects on conifers and their habitats.

There are 33 taxa in the category – Energy production and Infrastructure development, Mining:

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