Categories · Threats

Civil unrest

Civil unrest can have a serious negative impact on biodiversity. Violent conflicts have many far-reaching impacts on ecosystems and in some instances because of the sheer scale and advanced technology the term ecocide۪ has been used.

The Vietnam war used poisonous Agent Orange as an aerial forest defoliant in which 14% of the forest cover was affected. Over 90% of the major armed conflicts between 1950 and 2000 occurred within countries containing biodiversity hotspots, and more than 80% took place directly within hotspot areas. There are not many documented examples of armed conflicts affecting threatened conifer species; these are perhaps restricted to Lebanon where a long history of conflict has degraded the mountainous habitats of most of the conifer species. More recently a forest of Picea omorika was destroyed in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the war in the former Yugoslavia in the 1990s. Civil unrest can also be in the form of forest sabotage (using fire) when protected areas fail to engage with the local residents and with indigenous peoples.

There are 2 taxa in the category – Human intrusions, Civil unrest:

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