Prumnopitys exigua de Laub.

A valuable timver species from the cloud forests of Bolivia. Over-exploitation will eventually lead to this species being listed as threatened.


Endemic to Bolivia where it occurs in the Departments of Cochabamba (Province: Carrasco), Chuquisaca (Province: Belisario Boeto) and Santa Cruz (Province: Florida and Vallegrande). It has an estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) of 25,500 km2. May be locally common.

Habitat and Ecology

Occurs in upper montane tropical cloud forest on northeast facing slopes, where it ranges in altitude from 1,800-3,000 m above sea level. In Bosque Yungas in Parque Nacional Carrasco (Cochabamba) and in Bosque Tucumano Boliviano (Chuquisaca and Santa Cruz) it occurs from 2,700-3,000 m where its main associated trees species include Persea ruizii and Podocarpus glomeratus (Ustariz 1998). Other tree species associated with P. exigua can include: Alnus acuminata, Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Cedrela lilloi, Ilex argentina, Juglans boliviana, Myrcianthes callicoma, Podocarpus parlatorei, Podocarpus rusbyi, Ternstremia asymmetrica and Weinmannia microphylla.

Human Uses

P. exigua is exploited on a local basis for its valued wood which is used in house construction and carpentry

Conservation Status

Global Status

Near Threatened

Global Rationale

The extent of occurrence (EOO) of 25,500 km2 falls outside the threshold for Vulnerable (<20,000 km2). However continued exploitation for timber is likely to increase fragmentation and degradation of its habitat as well as reducing its extent of occurrence and area of occupancy. In the near future this could be sufficient for an assessment of Vulnerable under the criteria for B1. At this stage, it is assessed as Near Threatened.

Prumnopitys exigua has a fragmented distribution with much of its habitat being severely degraded. In the regions of Ayopaya and Siberia (Chocabamba), the main threats are from timber extraction (along with other important forest species), agricultural activities and extensive ranching (VMABCC-BIOVERSITY 2009). The resulting canopy loss has had a knock-on effect for key associated species, some of which are listed as being threatened. The selected extraction and over-harvesting of targeted species is an important threat as it relates directly to these species and to their contributions to the overall functioning of ecosystems (USAID/Bolivia 2008). The practice of slash and burn is also another serious threat to the species

National Status

It is listed as Vulnerable on the Bolivian National Redlist (Meneses & Beck 2005).

Conservation Actions

It occurs in two contiguous protected areas of Parque Nacional Amboró (Santa Cruz) and in Parque Nacional Carrasco (Cochabamba) where an important location for the species is on the Bosque de Yungas (Ustariz 1998)

References and further reading

  1. Anze, R. 1993. Podocarpaceae. In: T.J. Killeen, García, E.E. and S. Beck (eds), Guía de árboles de Bolivia, pp. 641-645. Herbario Nacional de Bolivia y Missouri Botanical Garden, La Paz.
  2. Ayma-Romay, Ariel I. and Sanzetene, E.S. 2008. Variaciones fenológicas de especies de Podocarpaceae en estación seca de los Yungas (Cochabamba, Bolivia). Ecología en Bolivia 43(1): 16-28
  3. Meneses, R.I. and Beck, S. 2005. Especies Amenazadas de la Flora de Bolivia. Herbario Nacional de Bolivia, La Paz.
  4. USAID/Bolivia. 2008. Bolivia Tropical Forestry and Biodiversity Assessment Final Report
  5. Ustariz, M. M. 1998. Vegetación de la Ceja De Monte Yungueña en El Parque Nacional Carrasco (Cochabamba-Bolivia). Revista Boliviana de Ecología y Conservación Ambiental 4: 55-75
  6. Zenito, F., Alanes, D., Nieto Blazquez, E. & Gardner, M. 2013. Prumnopitys exigua. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T38323A2868444. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T38323A2868444.en. Downloaded on 04 August 2017

External links