Juniperus drupacea Labill.

Nationally threatened in Lebanon, Syria and Israel where there are small stands which are threatened by fire, agriculture, urbanisation and civil conflict. Globally evaluated as Least Concern.


A widely distributed species in the Mediterranean where it occurs in Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Southern Turkey and two locations in Greece (Peloponnese) :

Syria: Ladhiqiyah: Jebel Nusayriyah and Jebel Kebir; SW Syria: Jabal ash Shaykh.
Lebanon: Restricted to a few locations which include: Jebel Barouk, Jabal Moussa, Ain Zhalta and valley of Sirhia.
Israel: A single location Galilea: Nazareth.
Turkey: Widespread in the Taurus Mountains in the provinces of Anatalya, Hatay, Icel, Konya, Maras, Mersin.
Greece: Peloponnisos: Arkhadia; Lakonia.

The most widespread subpopulation occurs in Turkey, in the Taurus Mountains through to Hatay and into Syria.

In Greece the disjunct stands in the Peloponnese (which are 800 km from the nearest stands in Turkey) are limited to the Prefectorate Argolida and occur in the Parnon mountain range and southern Mt. Taigetos (Tan 1999).  The former has in excess of 1,000 trees (Boratynski 1983) and the later 50-70 individuals.

It is most threatened in Israel with a single location and in Lebanon it has a very fragmented distribution.

Habitat and Ecology

Mixed montane conifer forest with Abies cilicica, A. cephalonica, Pinus brutia, P. nigra, Cedrus libani, Juniperus excelsa, J. foetidissima, J. oxycedrus, Quercus coccifera, Q. ilex and sometime with Fagus orientalis. Much of its habitat has been modified into maquis vegetation. It grows on of shallow, rocky soils, usually on calcareous or granite rocks. It has an altitude range of between 600-1,800 m and occurs in small groups or solitary mixed with other conifer species

Human Uses

Limited use although its decay-resistant wood has made the larger trees valuable for timber. The cones, which have high levels of sugar have been used in Turkey for marmalade or as dried fruit.

Conservation Status

Information for this species will be completed shortly

Conservation Actions

This species is found in protected areas.

References and further reading

  1. Boratynski A. and Browicz K. 1982. Juniperus drupacea Labill. in Greece. Arboretum Kornickie 27: 3-6.
  2. Güner, A. and Zielinski, J. 1996. The conservation status of Turkish woody flora. In: D.R. Hunt (ed.) Temperate trees under threat, pp.12. Proceedings of an International Dendrological Society Symposium on the conservation status of temperate trees, 30 Sept.-1 Oct. 1994, University of Bonn, Bonn.
  3. Gardner, M. 2013. Juniperus drupacea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 01 September 2013
  4. Tan, K., Sfikas G. & G. Vold. 1999. Juniperus drupacea (Cupressaceae) in the southern Peloponnese. Acta Botanica Fennica 162: 133-135.
  5. WWF Greece. 2007. Ecological assessment of the wildfires of August 2007 in the Peloponnese, Greece. WWF Greece, Athens.