Western Mediterranean

Conifers which become stressed following habitat disturbance are often out-competed by better adapted native plant species.  For example, in Bosnia and Herzegovina regeneration in some populations of Picea omorika is being supressed by native Fagus sylvatica because of being better adapted to colonising disturbed forest areas. In Western USA fire-supression has reduced the ability of Cupressus bakeri (which is fire-dependent) to regenerate, hence it is gradually being replaced by Abies magnifica and A. concolor.  Native mistletoes species of the genera Arceuthobium, Phoradendron and Psittacanthus can have a deterimental affect on conifers in North America and Mexico. These shrubby, aerial parasites, which are bird dispersed or have explosive fruits, cause deformation of the infected stems, growth loss, increased susceptibility to other disease agents or insects, and reduced longevity. Species of Abies, Cupressus and Juniperus are particularly susceptable to infestation especially if stressed by habitat disturbance.

Taxa in the category - Western Mediterranean:

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Abies numidica de Lannoy ex Carrière

Endemic to a very small area of the Djebel Babor Mountains in northern Algeria where it is threatened by a combination of fire, fuel-wood collection and grazing by cattle and goats. Read full species entry >

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Abies pinsapo Boiss.

The Spanish fir has two subspecies distributed in southern Spain and northern Morocco where threats include fire, grazing and climate change. Read full species entry >

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Abies pinsapo var. marocana (Trabut) Ceballos & Bolanos

The Moroccan fir is restricted to two small forests in the Rif Mountains of northern Morocco where over a period of 60 years it has suffered a 70% decline. Read full species entry >

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Abies pinsapo var. pinsapo

One of two varieties of the Spanish fir restricted to three areas of southern Spain where in the last 45 years large areas of  forest have been lost mainly as a result of fire. Read full species entry >

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Cedrus atlantica (Endl.) Manetti ex Carrière

Endemic to North Africa where it occurs in Morroco and Algeria. The main threats include logging, fire and extensive grazing by goats Read full species entry >

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Cupressus dupreziana A.Camus

Represented by the two varieties C. dupreziana var. dupreziana (Algeria) and C. dupreziana var. atlantica (Morocco). Long-lived (2000 years) but their future is threatened by fire, seed collecting and climate change. Read full species entry >

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Cupressus dupreziana var. atlantica (Gaussen) Silba

One of two varieties of cypress native to North Africa where it occurs in a very restricted area of the Atlas Mountains of Morocco. The severely fragmented population is Crtically Endangered Read full species entry >

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Cupressus dupreziana var. dupreziana

Native to the Sahara Desert in Algeria where it occupies a narrow strip of about 120km long on the edge of Tassili Plateau. It is Critically Endangered due to grazing and cutting for firewood Read full species entry >

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