Southern Mesoamerica

Climate plays a key role in determining the distribution and persistence of conifers in their natural habitats. Climates change over both contemporary and geological timescales and in response to this, some species may become locally or even globally extinct or they may disperse to more suitable areas. Over shorter time scales, the longevity and resilience of many species may allow them to persist in the same area.  In the recent past, these processes generally occurred within a landscape locally impacted by humans but more recently, large areas of natural vegetation have been converted for other uses. Ecosystems have become fragmented and degraded, many individual species have been intensively exploited and the introduction of alien plants, animals and diseases has also caused significant problems.  Against this backdrop, climate changes associated with global warming such as increases or decreases in precipitation levels and average temperatures are having increasing direct and indirect effects on many conifer species and their habitats. Impacts include more intensive or prolonged droughts, higher frequency and intensity of fires and increases in pests and disease.

Juniperus excelsa ssp. polycarpos. Oman

Juniperus excelsa ssp. polycarpos. Oman

Taxa in the category - Southern Mesoamerica:

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Abies hickelii Flous & Gaussen

Endemic to southeastern Mexico where the population is severely fragmented as a result of deforestation Read full species entry >

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Abies hickelii var. hickelii

Endemic to southeastern Mexico where the population is severely fragmented as a result of deforestation Read full species entry >

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Abies hickelii var. oaxacana (Martínez) Farjon & Silba

Endemic to southwestern Mexico where deforestation is a major threat Read full species entry >

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Juniperus standleyi Steyerm.

Distributed in southern Mexico and northern Guatemala where clearance for agricultural purposes and logging is a threat Read full species entry >

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Pinus chiapensis (Martínez) Andresen

Distributed in southern Mexico and Guatemala where it has been logged and forests have been converted for agricultural use. On the IUCN Redlist, this species is listed as a variety of Pinus strobus L. Read full species entry >

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Pinus tecunumanii F.Schwerdtf. ex Eguiluz & J.P.Perry

Has a scattered distribution in Central America where it is threatened by logging, forest clearance, fire and grazing Read full species entry >

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Podocarpus costaricensis de Laub.

This species is limited to four locations in Costa Rica and has seen a decline because of deforestation and changes in land use. Read full species entry >

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Podocarpus matudae Lundell

A widespread species in Central America, however, most forests are under pressure from logging, deforestation, habitat degradation. Read full species entry >

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