The Southern Mesoamerica Threatened Conifer Region extends from Guatemala and Belize southwards as far as the border between Panama and Colombia. Climates vary from warm, wet subtropical and tropical in the lowlands to cool and wet in the montane areas. For the conifers, it is an area of transition with major genera such as Abies, Cupressus, Juniperus and Pinus reaching their southern most distribution and where essentially southern hemisphere genera such as Podocarpus and Prumnopitys start become increasingly more frequent. Levels of endemism are relatively low. The majority of threatened species occur in biodiverse cloud forests especially at higher elevations in El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras where subpopulations tend to be small or localised. Major threats include small and large scale logging, the conversion of forests for agriculture and grazing as well as over harvesting for Christmas trees.
Endemic to Costa Rica, the primary threat is logging which has reduced the population and led to poor regeneration Read full species entry >