Residential and commercial development

The Southern Africa and Madagascar Threatened Conifer Region only includes conifers from the families Podocarpaceae and Cupressaceae. Apart from a few remnant coastal forests with Afrocarpus falcatus in South Africa and Mozambique, the conifers are mostly restricted to highland Afromontane areas, characterized by a patchy mosaic of forest and grassland. At mid elevations the subtropical forests consist of a mixture of angiosperm and Podocarps while at higher altitudes the forest is Podocarp dominant. Seventeen conifer taxa are found in this region, nine of which are currently globally threatened. In Madagascar there are seven endemic conifer taxa, five of which are threatened and all restricted to tropical montane forest of which more than 90% has been lost. On the mainland, the four species of Widdringtonia (Cupressaceae) occur at mid to high elevations on steep rocky slopes or in Afromontane forests. Two of these are threatened and one is Near Threatened. Threats in this conifer region include fire (especially for three of the four Widdringtonias) deforestation and grazing. In Madagascar forest loss is due to slash-and-burn, selective logging and overgrazing.

Taxa in the category - Residential and commercial development:

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Abies delavayi subsp. fansipanensis (Q.P.Xiang) Rushforth

This subspecies, described in 1997, is restricted to a single mountain in Northern Việt Nam. The main threats are its small population size and restricted distribution which make it potentially susceptible to stochastic events.  Read full species entry >

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Abies pinsapo Boiss.

The Spanish fir has two subspecies distributed in southern Spain and northern Morocco where threats include fire, grazing and climate change. Read full species entry >

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Abies pinsapo var. marocana (Trabut) Ceballos & Bolanos

The Moroccan fir is restricted to two small forests in the Rif Mountains of northern Morocco where over a period of 60 years it has suffered a 70% decline. Read full species entry >

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Amentotaxus argotaenia (Hance) Pilg

A widespread species that only ever occurs in small isolated populations. It is currently assessed as Near Threatened due to range wide deforestation. Read full species entry >

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Amentotaxus assamica D.K.Ferguson

Poorly known species endemic to India where threats include forest clearance for agriculture, logging, firewood collection and infrastructure development Read full species entry >

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Calocedrus macrolepis Kurz

A widespread species that has been exploited for timber and resin. Difficulties in estimating the extent of its decline and a lack of information about its staus is some parts of its range have resulted in an assessment of Near Threatened. Read full species entry >

Foliage
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Cedrus libani A.Rich.

Native to mountains adjacent to the north-eastern Mediterranean coast in Turkey, Syria and Lebanon. Threats include pathogens, fire, urbanisation, selective felling, activities associated with winter sports and grazing. Read full species entry >

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Cephalotaxus hainanensis H.L.Li

Restricted to the island of Hainan, China where the main threat has been exploitation of the bark and leaves for the valuable medicinal extracts. Habitat conversion and deforestation are now the most current threats Read full species entry >

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