Residential and commercial development

The negative impacts of residential and commercial development on conifers is so severe that it has led to conifer species becoming Critically Endangered. Ironically, the very system put in place to protect biodiversty, such as national parks, can have a negative impact on biodiversity. Here the most detrimental impacts can be from the visiting public by bringing an increased risk of fire and the introduction of harmful pests and diseases. As a result of an explosive growth rates in the human population over the last 50 years there has been a steady drift of people from the city centres into urban areas. It is estimated that 60% of the Earth's population will live in urban areas by 2030. Hence these increasing population densities and mounting development pressures are causing large tracks of land in the immediate surroundings of urban areas undergoing a process of what is known as urbanisation. This phenomenon directly alters forest ecosystems by removing or fragmenting forest cover. It indirectly alters forest ecosystems by modifying hydrology, altering nutrient cycling, modifying disturbance regimes, and changing atmospheric conditions. 

<em>Tetraclinis articulata</em>, Malta

Tetraclinis articulata, Malta© M.Gardner, RBGE

Taxa in the category - Residential and commercial development:

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Nageia maxima (Parl.) de Laub.

Known from only two locations in Sarawak where it is primarily threatened by the conversion of rainforest to oil palm plantations Read full species entry >

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Pherosphaera fitzgeraldii (F.Muell.) F.Muell. ex Hook.f.

Native to a very small area in the Blue Mountains of Australia where threats include pollution, invasive plants species and extreme fire events Read full species entry >

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Pinus brutia var. pityusa

Endemic to the north-east Black Sea area where its habitat is threatened by development Read full species entry >

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Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis (Griseb.) W.H.Barrett & Golfari

Distributed in the Caribbean throughout the Bahamas and on Turks and Caicos Island; the current main threat is damage from an introduced exotic scale insect but dry-season fires or non-seasonal fires and development are also having negative effects Read full species entry >

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Pinus henryi Mast.

A small pine from the mountains of central China. Following decades of deforestation some recovery and expansion appears to be taking place. Currently this species is assessed as Near Threatened. Read full species entry >

Female Cone
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Pinus krempfii Lecomte

One of the most unusual pine species with broad flattened needles. It is endemic to a small area of the southern highlands of Việt Nam and has undergone an historic decline as a consequence of war, fire and the conversion of forests to pine plantations. Although the majority of stands  are now within a major national park, infrastructure developments within the park have led to further habitat fragmentation. Read full species entry >

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Pinus radiata D.Don

Distributed on the Pacific coast of California and on two islands off the coast of Mexico, it is threatened by feral goats on the islands and by an introduced pathogen, and competition from other trees in the absence of periodic fires on the mainland Read full species entry >

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Pinus radiata var. binata (Engelm.) Lemmon

Endemic to two small islands off the coast of Baja California, Mexico: the main threats are pitch canker, impacts of possibly frequent fires, climate change, and introduced species Read full species entry >

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