Natural / geological events

Most of the world’s volcanic eruptions occur around the Pacific rim -  a horseshoe shape of nearly continuous series of volcanic arcs. Here over 75% of the world’s volcanoes occur hence the name ‘The Ring of Fire’ or as it is technically referred to the circum-Pacific seismic belt.  It is around the Pacific Rim, often on the slopes of volcanoes where important conifer habitats occur.  Frequently these contain small populations of narrow endemics. Although active volcanoes contribute to a very small percentage of the total forest habitat loss, it can be significant if the volcano is in a protected area (as is often the case) and this sanctuary represents a significant part of the distribution of a conifer species. When humans put pressure on species and ecosystems, the effects of natural events such as volcanoes can be more detrimental than they would otherwise be and should be considered real threats in some situations.

Taxa in the category - Natural / geological events:

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Juniperus barbadensis var. lucayana (Britton) R.P. Adams

Endemic to the West Indes where it occurs in the Bahamas, Cuba and Jamaica. Here it is threatened by fire, cutting and invasive pathogens. Read full species entry >

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Larix mastersiana Rehder & E.H.Wilson

China, endemic to W Sichuan where logging has been the main cause which has reduced the population size Read full species entry >

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Picea koyamae Shiras.

Endemic to Central Honshu in Japan where a population of less than 1000 individuals occur on two mountains; extensive historic logging has now led to severe fragmentation Read full species entry >

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Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis (Griseb.) W.H.Barrett & Golfari

Distributed in the Caribbean throughout the Bahamas and on Turks and Caicos Island; the current main threat is damage from an introduced exotic scale insect but dry-season fires or non-seasonal fires and development are also having negative effects Read full species entry >

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Pinus caribaea var. caribaea

Endemic to Cuba where logging and conversion of the habitat to pasture-land are the main threats Read full species entry >

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Pinus squamata X.W. Li

One of the world's rarest pines, confined to a single locality in Yunnan, China with only about 20 mature individuals. Read full species entry >

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Podocarpus affinis Seem.

Podocarpus affinis has a restricted extent of occurrence (ca. 1,400 km2) well within the threshold for listing as Endangered under the B1 criterion. It is known from more than five locations and the subpopulations are not severely fragmented as defined under the IUCN Red List Guidelines. There is likely to have been some recent decline in the quality of its habitat in parts of its range due to deforestation and forest clearance. The extent of the decline is uncertain. At this stage an assessment of Near Threatened seems most appropriate (almost qualifies under B1ab(iii)). Read full species entry >

Near Mt Tomanivi
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Podocarpus buchii Urban

Endemic to the Dominican Republic and Haiti where it is mainly threatened by habitat loss due to agriculture, logging, fire and tornadoes. Read full species entry >

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