Invasive species

The Canaries and Azores Threatened Conifer Region comprise a group of subtropical oceanic islands in the North Atlantic Ocean which form part of Macronesia. These islands are volcanic and have never been connected to the continents; therefore the floras are products of long distance dispersal by wind, animals and sea, hence the high levels of endemism. Conifers often form an important forest component on most of the islands, for example, Pinus canariensis, the only native pine, is endemic to four of the Canary Islands, where it forms extensive forests. Fire plays an important non-detrimental role in the ecology of the pine forests and this important timber species is well adapted to post-fire regeneration. The only other conifer species native to Macaronesia are Taxus baccata, which is locally threatened in the Azores and three juniper species. Juniperus brevifolia and J. cedrus are both highly threatened but J. phoenicea var. turbinata is of Least Concern and has a broad distribution through the Mediterranean Region and North Africa. Current threats are numerous but perhaps the most serious for conifers are fire and loss of habitat due to invasive non-native species.

Taxa in the category - Invasive species:

Page 1 of 6 pages  1 2 3 >  Last ›
 world map

blob indicating Eastern and southeastern USA	 on map

Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.

Distributed in three States of eastern USA but as a result of severe infestation from the Balsam woolly adelgid, only one population remains unaffected Read full species entry >

 world map

blob indicating Japan, Korea and Far East	 on map

Abies koreana E.H.Wilson

Endemic to four mountains in South Korea, the population suffers a range of threats including climate change, introduced pathogens and invasive native and non-native plants Read full species entry >

 world map

blob indicating Western Mediterranean on map

Abies pinsapo Boiss.

The Spanish fir has two subspecies distributed in southern Spain and northern Morocco where threats include fire, grazing and climate change. Read full species entry >

 world map

blob indicating Western Mediterranean on map

Abies pinsapo var. marocana (Trabut) Ceballos & Bolanos

The Moroccan fir is restricted to two small forests in the Rif Mountains of northern Morocco where over a period of 60 years it has suffered a 70% decline. Read full species entry >

 world map

blob indicating Southwest Pacific on map

Agathis montana de laub.

Endemic to the Mt. Panié range in northern New Caledonia where recent research has found that the decline and loss of old-growth trees is probably due to a combination of factors including root damage by feral pigs, pathogen attack and climate change. Read full species entry >

 world map

blob indicating Temperate southern America on map

Araucaria araucana (Molina) K. Koch

Endemic to southern Argentina and Chile where it mainly occurs in the Andes. Threats include fire, grazing and encroachment from commercial plantations of exotic species. Read full species entry >

 world map

blob indicating Australasia on map

Araucaria heterophylla (Salisb.) Franco

Endemic to Australia (Norfolk Island Group) where historical logging and forest clearance significantly reduced the population. Today the main threats relate to the impacts of invasive non-native species. Read full species entry >

 world map

blob indicating Southwest Pacific on map

Araucaria humboldtensis J. Buchholz

One of 13 species of Araucaria endemic to New Caledonia where it is restricted to less than five locations. There has been a recent decline in the health of some high altitude stands. Read full species entry >

Page 1 of 6 pages  1 2 3 >  Last ›