Invasive species

Conifers which become stressed following habitat disturbance are often out-competed by better adapted native plant species.  For example, in Bosnia and Herzegovina regeneration in some populations of Picea omorika is being supressed by native Fagus sylvatica because of being better adapted to colonising disturbed forest areas. In Western USA fire-supression has reduced the ability of Cupressus bakeri (which is fire-dependent) to regenerate, hence it is gradually being replaced by Abies magnifica and A. concolor.  Native mistletoes species of the genera Arceuthobium, Phoradendron and Psittacanthus can have a deterimental affect on conifers in North America and Mexico. These shrubby, aerial parasites, which are bird dispersed or have explosive fruits, cause deformation of the infected stems, growth loss, increased susceptibility to other disease agents or insects, and reduced longevity. Species of Abies, Cupressus and Juniperus are particularly susceptable to infestation especially if stressed by habitat disturbance.

Taxa in the category - Invasive species:

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Pinus albicaulis Engelm.

Native to Western USA and Canada where historically large areas of forests were lost to the mining industry; today it is threatened by wildfire, White Pine Blister Rust and Mountain Pine Beetle Read full species entry >

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Pinus amamiana Koidz.

Endemic to Japan where it was formerly exploited for its timber but more recently the population has been much reduced by pine wood nematodes accidentally introduced from the U.S.A. Read full species entry >

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Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis (Griseb.) W.H.Barrett & Golfari

Distributed in the Caribbean throughout the Bahamas and on Turks and Caicos Island; the current main threat is damage from an introduced exotic scale insect but dry-season fires or non-seasonal fires and development are also having negative effects Read full species entry >

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Pinus caribaea var. caribaea

Endemic to Cuba where logging and conversion of the habitat to pasture-land are the main threats Read full species entry >

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Pinus palustris Mill.

Distributed in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains of southeastern USA where extreme levels of logging have dramatically reduced the population size Read full species entry >

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Pinus radiata D.Don

Distributed on the Pacific coast of California and on two islands off the coast of Mexico, it is threatened by feral goats on the islands and by an introduced pathogen, and competition from other trees in the absence of periodic fires on the mainland Read full species entry >

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Pinus radiata var. binata (Engelm.) Lemmon

Endemic to two small islands off the coast of Baja California, Mexico: the main threats are pitch canker, impacts of possibly frequent fires, climate change, and introduced species Read full species entry >

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Pinus radiata var. radiata

Endemic to central-coastal California, USA where the three remaining stands are mainly threatened by fire, pitch canker and urbanisation. Read full species entry >

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