Here human intrusions includes recreational activities and civil unrest. Although recreational activities can have very positive effects on biodiversity by providing much-needed income for protected areas, they can have a negative impact if not managed effectively. For example, intensive recreational facilities such as campgrounds often result in the removal of the local vegetation a fuel wood for camp fires. Because conifers are a common component in mountainous regions where they often dominate, they are particularly vulnerable to the development of winter sport activities such as ski resorts. Over 90% of the major armed conflicts between 1950 and 2000 occurred within countries containing biodiversity hotspots, and more than 80% took place directly within hotspot areas. Civil unrest can have a serious negative impact on biodiversity. The Việt Nam war used poisonous Agent Orange as an aerial forest defoliant in which 14% of the forest cover was affected.
The Serbian spruce is one of two spruces native to Europe. It is endemic to a small area within Bosnia and Herzegovina and neighbouring Serbia in the Balkan Peninsula. Read full species entry >
Distributed on the Pacific coast of California and on two islands off the coast of Mexico, it is threatened by feral goats on the islands and by an introduced pathogen, and competition from other trees in the absence of periodic fires on the mainland Read full species entry >
Distributed in NE China, North and South Korea where it has mainly become threatened through deforestation. Read full species entry >
This Critically Endangered Australian endemic occurs in a small area of New South Wales where the population of about 80 mature individuals face potential threats from pathogens and a decline in habitat quality. Read full species entry >