Himalayas

The negative impacts of residential and commercial development on conifers is so severe that it has led to conifer species becoming Critically Endangered. Ironically, the very system put in place to protect biodiversty, such as national parks, can have a negative impact on biodiversity. Here the most detrimental impacts can be from the visiting public by bringing an increased risk of fire and the introduction of harmful pests and diseases. As a result of an explosive growth rates in the human population over the last 50 years there has been a steady drift of people from the city centres into urban areas. It is estimated that 60% of the Earth's population will live in urban areas by 2030. Hence these increasing population densities and mounting development pressures are causing large tracks of land in the immediate surroundings of urban areas undergoing a process of what is known as urbanisation. This phenomenon directly alters forest ecosystems by removing or fragmenting forest cover. It indirectly alters forest ecosystems by modifying hydrology, altering nutrient cycling, modifying disturbance regimes, and changing atmospheric conditions. 

<em>Tetraclinis articulata</em>, Malta

Tetraclinis articulata, Malta© M.Gardner, RBGE

Taxa in the category - Himalayas:

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Abies forrestii var. smithii Viguié & Gaussen

A high elevation species that is listed as Near Threatened due to past logging and deforestation. Read full species entry >

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Amentotaxus assamica D.K.Ferguson

Poorly known species endemic to India where threats include forest clearance for agriculture, logging, firewood collection and infrastructure development Read full species entry >

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Cephalotaxus mannii Hook. f.

Although widely distributed in southeastern Asia it is often targeted for its timber. Futher threats include the conversion of its habitat to agriculture land which has resulted in severe forest fragmentation. Read full species entry >

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Cupressus gigantea W.C.Cheng & L.K.Fu

Native to southwest China where the main threat is deforestation Read full species entry >

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Juniperus pingii W.C.Cheng

A variable, high altitude juniper that is usually found as a prostrate shurb (var wilsonii) in SW China and on the Tibetan Plateau. Grazing and firewood collection have led to a suspected reduction of almost 30% so that it has been assessed as Near Threatened. Read full species entry >

J. pingii and other conifers, Baima Shan
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Juniperus recurva var coxii (A.B.Jacks.) Melville

A graceful weeping tree from SW China and the adjoining Himalayas. Large trees are now rare as its timber has been highly valued for coffins and furniture. Currently it is assessed as Near Threatened. Read full species entry >

Bark detail
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Juniperus tibetica Kom.

Distributed in China and Tibet where threats include fire and grazing Read full species entry >

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Larix potaninii var himalaica (W.C.Cheng & L.K.Fu) Farjon & Silba

This variety is restricted to a few valleys near Mt Everest on both Chinese and Nepalese sides. It is assessed as Near Threatened due to its restricted distribution, the likelihood that it is exploited but uncertainty as to the extent of that exploitation. Read full species entry >

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