Himalayas

Direct exploitation occurs through general logging (deforestation), selective logging or the use of forest non-timber products (FNTP’s). General logging is the biggest threat to conifer species whereby forest habitats are often replaced by plantations, settlements or agricultural land. Selective logging involves the removal of individual tree species for their valuable timber, for charcoal production or fire wood. This practise is often considered to be a sustainable alternative to clear-cutting however, for every tree removed 30 more will become severely damaged because the practise of selective logging is inherently destructive. Conifers play an important role in the production of non-timber products, one example is the use of the foliage and bark of Taxus species for the production of the anti-cancer drug taxol. Although over-exploitation can lead to local extinction, the sustainable commercial and domestic use have the potential of increased incentives for forest conservation.

Fitzroya cupressoides

Fitzroya cupressoides© M.Gardner, RBGE

Taxa in the category - Himalayas:

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Abies forrestii var. smithii Viguié & Gaussen

A high elevation species that is listed as Near Threatened due to past logging and deforestation. Read full species entry >

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Amentotaxus assamica D.K.Ferguson

Poorly known species endemic to India where threats include forest clearance for agriculture, logging, firewood collection and infrastructure development Read full species entry >

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Cephalotaxus mannii Hook. f.

Although widely distributed in southeastern Asia it is often targeted for its timber. Futher threats include the conversion of its habitat to agriculture land which has resulted in severe forest fragmentation. Read full species entry >

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Cupressus gigantea W.C.Cheng & L.K.Fu

Native to southwest China where the main threat is deforestation Read full species entry >

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Juniperus pingii W.C.Cheng

A variable, high altitude juniper that is usually found as a prostrate shurb (var wilsonii) in SW China and on the Tibetan Plateau. Grazing and firewood collection have led to a suspected reduction of almost 30% so that it has been assessed as Near Threatened. Read full species entry >

J. pingii and other conifers, Baima Shan
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Juniperus recurva var coxii (A.B.Jacks.) Melville

A graceful weeping tree from SW China and the adjoining Himalayas. Large trees are now rare as its timber has been highly valued for coffins and furniture. Currently it is assessed as Near Threatened. Read full species entry >

Bark detail
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Juniperus tibetica Kom.

Distributed in China and Tibet where threats include fire and grazing Read full species entry >

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Larix potaninii var himalaica (W.C.Cheng & L.K.Fu) Farjon & Silba

This variety is restricted to a few valleys near Mt Everest on both Chinese and Nepalese sides. It is assessed as Near Threatened due to its restricted distribution, the likelihood that it is exploited but uncertainty as to the extent of that exploitation. Read full species entry >

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