Eastern Mediterranean

The negative impacts of residential and commercial development on conifers is so severe that it has led to conifer species becoming Critically Endangered. Ironically, the very system put in place to protect biodiversty, such as national parks, can have a negative impact on biodiversity. Here the most detrimental impacts can be from the visiting public by bringing an increased risk of fire and the introduction of harmful pests and diseases. As a result of an explosive growth rates in the human population over the last 50 years there has been a steady drift of people from the city centres into urban areas. It is estimated that 60% of the Earth's population will live in urban areas by 2030. Hence these increasing population densities and mounting development pressures are causing large tracks of land in the immediate surroundings of urban areas undergoing a process of what is known as urbanisation. This phenomenon directly alters forest ecosystems by removing or fragmenting forest cover. It indirectly alters forest ecosystems by modifying hydrology, altering nutrient cycling, modifying disturbance regimes, and changing atmospheric conditions. 

<em>Tetraclinis articulata</em>, Malta

Tetraclinis articulata, Malta© M.Gardner, RBGE

Taxa in the category - Eastern Mediterranean :

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Abies cilicica subsp. cilicica

Endemic to the mountains adjacent to the north-eastern Mediterranean coast where globally it is Near Threatened but Endangered at a national level in Syria and Lebanon Read full species entry >

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Abies cilicica subsp. isaurica Coode & Cullen

One of five species of firs native to Turkey where it has a restricted distribution in the Taurus Mountains. It is threatened by habitat degradation due to the effects of climate change, pathogen attack and fire. Read full species entry >

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Abies nebrodensis (Lojac.) Mattei

A narrow endemic native to the Madonie Mountains of Sicily where the entire population consists of only 30 individuals. Read full species entry >

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Cedrus brevifolia (Hook.f.) A.Henry

Cedrus brevifolia is endemic to a very small area in the Troodos Mountains of western Cyprus; its very small population is prone to fire. The IUCN Redlist treats this taxon as a variety of Cedrus libani. Read full species entry >

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Cedrus libani A.Rich.

Native to mountains adjacent to the north-eastern Mediterranean coast in Turkey, Syria and Lebanon. Threats include pathogens, fire, urbanisation, selective felling, activities associated with winter sports and grazing. Read full species entry >

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Juniperus drupacea Labill.

Nationally threatened in Lebanon, Syria and Israel where there are small stands which are threatened by fire, agriculture, urbanisation and civil conflict. Globally evaluated as Least Concern. Read full species entry >

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Larix decidua var. polonica (Racib. ex Wóycicki) Ostenf. & Syrach-Larsen

Scattered remnant stands in Poland where competition from other forest tree species is a problem Read full species entry >

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Picea omorika (Pancic) Purk.

The Serbian spruce is one of two spruces native to Europe. It is endemic to a small area within Bosnia and Herzegovina and neighbouring Serbia in the Balkan Peninsula. Read full species entry >

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