Eastern Mediterranean

The Eastern Mediterranean Threatened Conifer Region covers a wide area from southern Italy, east to the Black Sea coast. It includes important conifer areas that found within the Taurus Mountains in southern Turkey and extends to the Eastern Lebanon Mountain Range which runs down through Syria and Lebanon. This is the main range for Abies cilicica and Cedrus libani. Here typically the forested limestone mountains have most of their precipitation in the form of winter snow fall followed by long hot summers. Similar weather patterns are characteristic of the islands of Cyprus, the sole location for Cedrus brevifolia and Sicily which has a very small population of the endemic Abies nebrodensis. The temperate broadleaf and mixed forests of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Serbia in the Balkans, which cover limestone mountains, supports fragmented populations of Picea omorika while the sparsely forested karst limestone coast has narrow endemic threatened pines. The threats to conifers in this region are numerous and include fire, over-grazing, habitat loss through urbanisation and deforestation, pathogen attack, climate change and negative activities associated with winter sports.

Taxa in the category - Eastern Mediterranean :

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Abies cilicica subsp. cilicica

Endemic to the mountains adjacent to the north-eastern Mediterranean coast where globally it is Near Threatened but Endangered at a national level in Syria and Lebanon Read full species entry >

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Abies cilicica subsp. isaurica Coode & Cullen

One of five species of firs native to Turkey where it has a restricted distribution in the Taurus Mountains. It is threatened by habitat degradation due to the effects of climate change, pathogen attack and fire. Read full species entry >

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Abies nebrodensis (Lojac.) Mattei

A narrow endemic native to the Madonie Mountains of Sicily where the entire population consists of only 30 individuals. Read full species entry >

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Cedrus brevifolia (Hook.f.) A.Henry

Cedrus brevifolia is endemic to a very small area in the Troodos Mountains of western Cyprus; its very small population is prone to fire. The IUCN Redlist treats this taxon as a variety of Cedrus libani. Read full species entry >

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Cedrus libani A.Rich.

Native to mountains adjacent to the north-eastern Mediterranean coast in Turkey, Syria and Lebanon. Threats include pathogens, fire, urbanisation, selective felling, activities associated with winter sports and grazing. Read full species entry >

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Juniperus drupacea Labill.

Nationally threatened in Lebanon, Syria and Israel where there are small stands which are threatened by fire, agriculture, urbanisation and civil conflict. Globally evaluated as Least Concern. Read full species entry >

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Larix decidua var. polonica (Racib. ex Wóycicki) Ostenf. & Syrach-Larsen

Scattered remnant stands in Poland where competition from other forest tree species is a problem Read full species entry >

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Picea omorika (Pancic) Purk.

The Serbian spruce is one of two spruces native to Europe. It is endemic to a small area within Bosnia and Herzegovina and neighbouring Serbia in the Balkan Peninsula. Read full species entry >

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