Caribbean

The negative impacts of residential and commercial development on conifers is so severe that it has led to conifer species becoming Critically Endangered. Ironically, the very system put in place to protect biodiversty, such as national parks, can have a negative impact on biodiversity. Here the most detrimental impacts can be from the visiting public by bringing an increased risk of fire and the introduction of harmful pests and diseases. As a result of an explosive growth rates in the human population over the last 50 years there has been a steady drift of people from the city centres into urban areas. It is estimated that 60% of the Earth's population will live in urban areas by 2030. Hence these increasing population densities and mounting development pressures are causing large tracks of land in the immediate surroundings of urban areas undergoing a process of what is known as urbanisation. This phenomenon directly alters forest ecosystems by removing or fragmenting forest cover. It indirectly alters forest ecosystems by modifying hydrology, altering nutrient cycling, modifying disturbance regimes, and changing atmospheric conditions. 

<em>Tetraclinis articulata</em>, Malta

Tetraclinis articulata, Malta© M.Gardner, RBGE

Taxa in the category - Caribbean:

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Juniperus barbadensis L.

Endemic to the Caribbean in the Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica and St Lucia where threats include logging, fire and urbanisation Read full species entry >

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Juniperus barbadensis var. barbadensis

Endemic to one mountain in St Lucia where only about 50 mature individuals survive and are threatened by wild-fires Read full species entry >

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Juniperus barbadensis var. lucayana (Britton) R.P. Adams

Endemic to the West Indes where it occurs in the Bahamas, Cuba and Jamaica. Here it is threatened by fire, cutting and invasive pathogens. Read full species entry >

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Juniperus bermudiana L.

Endemic to Bermuda where historically it underwent a catastrophic decline of almost 95% due to scale insects, recent recovery is hampered by invasive plant species. Read full species entry >

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Juniperus gracilior Pilg.

Native to the Dominican Republic and Haiti where firewood collection, forest clearance and man-made fires have reduced the population to less than 1,000 mature individuals  Read full species entry >

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Juniperus gracilior var. ekmanii (Florin) R.P.Adams

Restricted to two localities in the Dominican Republic and Haiti where the few remaining trees are still threatened by cutting and firewood collection. Read full species entry >

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Juniperus gracilior var. urbaniana (Pilg. & Ekman) R.P.Adams

Occurs in the Dominican Republic and Haiti where there are less than 250 mature individuals; main threats include fire and overgrazing by livestock. Read full species entry >

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Juniperus saxicola Britton & P.Wilson

Endemic to a single mountain in eastern Cuba where fire and human disturbance has reduced the population to just 53 mature individuals. Read full species entry >

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