Caribbean

Conifers which become stressed following habitat disturbance are often out-competed by better adapted native plant species.  For example, in Bosnia and Herzegovina regeneration in some populations of Picea omorika is being supressed by native Fagus sylvatica because of being better adapted to colonising disturbed forest areas. In Western USA fire-supression has reduced the ability of Cupressus bakeri (which is fire-dependent) to regenerate, hence it is gradually being replaced by Abies magnifica and A. concolor.  Native mistletoes species of the genera Arceuthobium, Phoradendron and Psittacanthus can have a deterimental affect on conifers in North America and Mexico. These shrubby, aerial parasites, which are bird dispersed or have explosive fruits, cause deformation of the infected stems, growth loss, increased susceptibility to other disease agents or insects, and reduced longevity. Species of Abies, Cupressus and Juniperus are particularly susceptable to infestation especially if stressed by habitat disturbance.

Taxa in the category - Caribbean:

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Juniperus barbadensis L.

Endemic to the Caribbean in the Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica and St Lucia where threats include logging, fire and urbanisation Read full species entry >

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Juniperus barbadensis var. barbadensis

Endemic to one mountain in St Lucia where only about 50 mature individuals survive and are threatened by wild-fires Read full species entry >

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Juniperus barbadensis var. lucayana (Britton) R.P. Adams

Endemic to the West Indes where it occurs in the Bahamas, Cuba and Jamaica. Here it is threatened by fire, cutting and invasive pathogens. Read full species entry >

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Juniperus bermudiana L.

Endemic to Bermuda where historically it underwent a catastrophic decline of almost 95% due to scale insects, recent recovery is hampered by invasive plant species. Read full species entry >

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Juniperus gracilior Pilg.

Native to the Dominican Republic and Haiti where firewood collection, forest clearance and man-made fires have reduced the population to less than 1,000 mature individuals  Read full species entry >

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Juniperus gracilior var. ekmanii (Florin) R.P.Adams

Restricted to two localities in the Dominican Republic and Haiti where the few remaining trees are still threatened by cutting and firewood collection. Read full species entry >

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Juniperus gracilior var. urbaniana (Pilg. & Ekman) R.P.Adams

Occurs in the Dominican Republic and Haiti where there are less than 250 mature individuals; main threats include fire and overgrazing by livestock. Read full species entry >

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Juniperus saxicola Britton & P.Wilson

Endemic to a single mountain in eastern Cuba where fire and human disturbance has reduced the population to just 53 mature individuals. Read full species entry >

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