Caribbean

Energy production and infrastructure development can have a severe detrimental effect on conifer habitats.  A recent surge in the global demand for metals has led to an increase in mining activities with open-cast mining or strip-mining and its associated activities causing severe environmental damage.  Conifer-rich forests are often affected by this type of mining for example, nickel mining on the Pacific island of New Caledonia. Hydroelectric schemes often cause habitat loss due to forest inundation or indirectly by the loss of downstream habitats through changes in water levels.  Over the past 100 years hydroelectric schemes are responsible for a 15% habitat loss of Lagarostrobos franklinii forest in Tasmania.  Logging activities invariably start with the construction of roads in order to gain access to timber and this can include up to 15% of the consumed logged area. This intrusion is often devastating, opening up the area for further development and as communities grow more infrastructure and services are required.

Taxa in the category - Caribbean:

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Juniperus barbadensis L.

Endemic to the Caribbean in the Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica and St Lucia where threats include logging, fire and urbanisation Read full species entry >

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Juniperus barbadensis var. barbadensis

Endemic to one mountain in St Lucia where only about 50 mature individuals survive and are threatened by wild-fires Read full species entry >

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Juniperus barbadensis var. lucayana (Britton) R.P. Adams

Endemic to the West Indes where it occurs in the Bahamas, Cuba and Jamaica. Here it is threatened by fire, cutting and invasive pathogens. Read full species entry >

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Juniperus bermudiana L.

Endemic to Bermuda where historically it underwent a catastrophic decline of almost 95% due to scale insects, recent recovery is hampered by invasive plant species. Read full species entry >

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Juniperus gracilior Pilg.

Native to the Dominican Republic and Haiti where firewood collection, forest clearance and man-made fires have reduced the population to less than 1,000 mature individuals  Read full species entry >

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Juniperus gracilior var. ekmanii (Florin) R.P.Adams

Restricted to two localities in the Dominican Republic and Haiti where the few remaining trees are still threatened by cutting and firewood collection. Read full species entry >

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Juniperus gracilior var. urbaniana (Pilg. & Ekman) R.P.Adams

Occurs in the Dominican Republic and Haiti where there are less than 250 mature individuals; main threats include fire and overgrazing by livestock. Read full species entry >

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Juniperus saxicola Britton & P.Wilson

Endemic to a single mountain in eastern Cuba where fire and human disturbance has reduced the population to just 53 mature individuals. Read full species entry >

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