Agriculture and Forestry

The Himalayan Threatened Conifer Region extends from the northeastern provinces of Afghanistan in a narrow arc through northwestern Pakistan and India, through Nepal, Assam and northern Myanmar. Its eastern limit is at about 98° E where three major river systems (Irrawaddy, Nujiang and Mekong) converge and the main mountain ranges are orientated southwards. Throughout the area climates and vegetation are heavily influenced by summer monsoons and the rapid rise in elevation. The conifer flora is concentrated in the mid montane areas above 1500m above sea-level and is dominated by members of the Pinaceae and Cupressaceae. Of the approximately 40 taxa that occur in this area, 22 are endemic. Most species occur in the eastern part of the region with many also occurring in Regions 7 and 8. One species, Taiwania cryptomerioides, also occurs in Region 10. Although only nine taxa have been assessed as globally threatened, several more are nationally threatened in at least one part of their range. Principal region-wide threats include harvesting for medicinal use (Taxus), overexploitation for timber and deforestation associated with agricultural and pastoral activities. Hydroelectric developments are a localized threat in some parts of the region.

Taxa in the category - Agriculture and Forestry:

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Abies beshanzuensis M.H.Wu

Endemic to eastern China in Zhejiang Province where only a handful of mature individuals survive Read full species entry >

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Abies forrestii var. forrestii

A mid to high altitude fir that has previously been impacted by logging. It is assessed as Near Threatened. Read full species entry >

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Abies forrestii var. smithii ViguiƩ & Gaussen

A high elevation species that is listed as Near Threatened due to past logging and deforestation. Read full species entry >

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Abies pinsapo Boiss.

The Spanish fir has two subspecies distributed in southern Spain and northern Morocco where threats include fire, grazing and climate change. Read full species entry >

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Abies pinsapo var. marocana (Trabut) Ceballos & Bolanos

The Moroccan fir is restricted to two small forests in the Rif Mountains of northern Morocco where over a period of 60 years it has suffered a 70% decline. Read full species entry >

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Abies pinsapo var. pinsapo

One of two varieties of the Spanish fir restricted to three areas of southern Spain where in the last 45 years large areas of  forest have been lost mainly as a result of fire. Read full species entry >

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Abies ziyuanensis L.K. Fu & S.L. Mo

Endemic to south-east China where the present-day threats are landslides and overgrazing by sheep and cattle. Read full species entry >

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Agathis kinabaluensis de Laub.

Restricted to just two mountains in Sabah and Sarawak where there is some evidence of logging and forest clearance Read full species entry >

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