Most of the world’s volcanic eruptions occur around the Pacific rim - a horseshoe shape of nearly continuous series of volcanic arcs. Here over 75% of the world’s volcanoes occur hence the name ‘The Ring of Fire’ or as it is technically referred to the circum-Pacific seismic belt. It is around the Pacific Rim, often on the slopes of volcanoes where important conifer habitats occur. Frequently these contain small populations of narrow endemics. Although active volcanoes contribute to a very small percentage of the total forest habitat loss, it can be significant if the volcano is in a protected area (as is often the case) and this sanctuary represents a significant part of the distribution of a conifer species. When humans put pressure on species and ecosystems, the effects of natural events such as volcanoes can be more detrimental than they would otherwise be and should be considered real threats in some situations.
Endemic to the Chinese province of Guizhou where it is in decline due to acid rain. Read full species entry >
Distributed in three States of eastern USA but as a result of severe infestation from the Balsam woolly adelgid, only one population remains unaffected Read full species entry >
Endemic to southeastern Mexico where the population is severely fragmented as a result of deforestation Read full species entry >
Endemic to southwestern Mexico where deforestation is a major threat Read full species entry >
Endemic to four mountains in South Korea, the population suffers a range of threats including climate change, introduced pathogens and invasive native and non-native plants Read full species entry >
The Spanish fir has two subspecies distributed in southern Spain and northern Morocco where threats include fire, grazing and climate change. Read full species entry >
The Moroccan fir is restricted to two small forests in the Rif Mountains of northern Morocco where over a period of 60 years it has suffered a 70% decline. Read full species entry >